A PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER (PLC) is an industrial computer control system that continuously monitors the state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom program to control the state of output devices.
Almost any production line, machine function, or process can be greatly enhanced using this type of control system. However, the biggest benefit in using a PLC is the ability to change and replicate the operation or process while collecting and communicating vital information.
Another advantage of a PLC system is that it is modular. That is, you can mix and match the types of Input and Output devices to best suit your application.
The first Programmable Logic Controllers were designed and developed by Modicon as a relay re-placer for GM and Landis.
The Central Processing Unit, the CPU, contains an internal program that tells the PLC how to perform the following functions:
The following table shows a list of commonly used Acronyms that you see when researching or using your PLC.
|ASCII||American Standard Code for Information Interchange|
|BCD||Binary Coded Decimal|
|CSA||Canadian Standards Association|
|EIA||Electronic Industries Association|
|HMI||Human Machine Interface|
|IEC||International Electrotechnical Commission|
|IEEE||Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers|
|I/O||Input(s) and/or Output(s)|
|ISO||International Standards Organization|
|LSB||Least Significant Bit|
|MMI||Man Machine Interface|
|MODICON||Modular Digital Controller|
|MSB||Most Significant Bit|
|PID||Proportional Integral Derivative (feedback control)|
|RTU||Remote Terminal Unit|
|SCADA||Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition|
|TCP/IP||Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol|
Type of Product : Human Machine Interface Controllers
Market in Brand :
Mitsubishi Electric, Schneider Electric, Weintex, Iconics, Siemens, Delta, Lenze, Fuji, Omren, Allen-Bradley etc,,,,
Usage Purpose :
The Human Machine Interface (HMI) includes the electronics required to signal and control the state of industrial automation equipment. These interface products can range from a basic LED status indicator to a 20-inch TFT panel with touchscreen interface. HMI applications require mechanical robustness and resistance to water, dust, moisture, a wide range of temperatures, and, in some environments, secure communication. They should provide Ingress Protection (IP) ratings up to IP65, IP67, and IP68. The unique capacitive Atmel® QTouch technology, Atmel SAM9 microprocessors, and Atmel CryptoAuthentication™ devices enable designers to meet these requirements and more, with an optimized BOM.
A variable-frequency drive (VFD; also termed adjustable-frequency drive, variable speed drive, AC drive, micro drive or inverter drive) is a type of adjustable-speed drive used in electro-mechanical drive systems to control AC motor speed and torque by varying motor input frequency and voltage.
VFDs are used in applications ranging from small appliances to large compressors. About 25% of the world's electrical energy is consumed by electric motors in industrial applications, which can be more efficient when using VFDs in centrifugal load service; however, VFDs' global market penetration for all applications is relatively small.
Over the last four decades, power electronics technology has reduced VFD cost and size and has improved performance through advances in semiconductor switching devices, drive topologies, simulation and control techniques, and control hardware and software.
VFDs are made in a number of different low- and medium-voltage AC-AC and DC-AC topologies
Type of Product :
Trio Motion Technology is a specialised source of high performance motion control technology.
We design and manufacture flexible and economical solutions for motion control applications, enabling control of complex high speed automation and machine control in most industries throughout the world.
Our comprehensive range motion controllers branded Motion Coordinatorsallows seamless control of 1 to 128 axes of servo motors, stepper motors, piezo motors or hydraulic systems. Our flexible, modular controller range uses a common user interface and standard programming language; TrioBASIC.
We design customised solutions for OEMs, manufacture motion control options for globally available drives and license designs and technology to a number of automation companies. Our products are available locally via our global network of distributors and drive specialists. Each offers local training and technical support.
Market in Brand : Trio,
Usage Purpose :
The The Motion Coordinator system is extremely modular, allowing the user to tailor the controller to their specific needs, this also allows the flexibility to incorporate new modules if the need should change, making the system "future proof"
All the Motion Coordinators, whether PCI, panel mount, rack mount, DIN rail mount or a custom design format, incorporate a CANbus interface to allow for digital or analogue I/O expansion with Trio’s I/O modules. Special I/O requirements can also be accommodated using the CANopen protocol to control third party I/O modules. In many applications, Trio’s range can be combined to build a control system capable of driving a multi axis machine and all its auxiliary equipment.
Trio’s range of operator interface units provide a robust and functional HMI using the Trio fibre-optic network system. Third party HMI products, touchscreens etc., can communicate to the Motion Coordinator via the Modbus RTU serial protocol.
A stepper motor is used to achieve precise positioning via digital control. The motor operates by accurately synchronizing with the pulse signal output from the controller to the driver. Stepper motors, with their ability to produce high torque at a low speed while minimizing vibration, are ideal for applications requiring quick positioning over a short distance.
Stepper motors enable accurate positioning with ease. They are used in various types of equipment for accurate rotation angle and speed control using pulse signals. Stepper motors generate high torque with a compact body, and are ideal for quick acceleration and response. Stepper motors also hold their position at stop, due to their mechanical design. Stepper motor solutions consist of a driver (takes pulse signals in and converts them to motor motion) and a stepper motor. Oriental Motor offers many solutions for a wide variety of applications
A stepper motor rotates with a fixed step angle, just like the second hand of a clock. This angle is called "basic step angle". Oriental Motor offers stepper motors with a basic step angle of 0.36°, 0.72°, 0.9° and 1.8°.
The choice of what motor to use is usually an early step in the process of selecting a servo system. The critical things to be aware of are the desired speed (RPMs or Revolutions Per Minute) and the desired torque. Many times a speed-torque curve will be available for a motor that shows the amount of torque that a motor has at a specific speed. Servo motors generally have a relatively flat speed torque curve in that the amount of torque the motor has available stays relatively constant up until you reach the maximum speed of the motor. (A stepper motor on the other hand can have a significant ramp where the torque drops off considerably as the speed gets higher.). A gear-head or mechanical gear-train can be used to increase the torque of a motor when necessary.
An encoder is a position sensor that outputs a signal telling the controller where the motor is and how fast it is moving. Many servo motors come with an encoder built in however it is also possible to use an external encoder or feedback device to control a motor. When using an external encoder, it is critical that there not be an excessive amount of compliance between the motor and the encoder. Essentially, any change in the motor position should immediately be detected by the encoder. A situation where the encoder is mounted after a belt drive will cause problems due to the compliance in the belt. In a system where the position of the load is required, it is recommended to use two encoders - one directly on the back of the motor and a second encoder on the "load". The Galil controller has built in functionally called "dual-loop" mode to control a system with two feedback devices.
A servo motor amplifier takes a control signal from the motor controller and amplifies it up to deliver a specific amount of power to the motor. There are a number of different types of servo amplifiers out there but a common one is called a "torque-mode" amplifier. This type of amplifier converts the command signal from the controller into a specific amount of current (in Amps) delivered to the motor. In a rotary motor - current is directly proportional to torque - so the amplifier is actually directly controlling the amount of torque on the motor. In a linear motor, current is proportional to force - so likewise the amplifier is directly controlling the amount of force coming out of the motor. The amplifier closes a current loop around the motor at a very fast rate so that the motor controller's command signal closely matches the actual current that is delivered to the motor.
Up to this point, the components explained above can essentially take in a control signal and deliver a specific amount of current to a motor - the motor will then turn and the amount that it turns can be seen by the encoder. The job of the servo motor controller (or commonly referred to as the motion controller) is to close the loop on the system by constantly looking at the encoder signal and applying a torque to the motor in order to control it. The simplest form of this is to hold a specific position. In this scenario, if a disturbance causes the motor to move off of a position - the encoder detects this change in position - creating an error signal. This error signal is then translated into a commanded current by the controller in order to drive the motor back to the original position. A more advanced case is when the controller wants to move the motor to a new position. In this case the controller creates a desired motion profile using a specific acceleration, deceleration, and speed. In a very fast loop, the controller commands a specific position for the motor at a precise time - this results in the motor rotating along the desired motion profile.
Galil offers a wide variety of motion controllers for servo systems. To make things easy, Galil also offers a variety of optional plug-in amplifiers that mate up directly to the controller. There are two series of motion controllers that offer this - one is the high-performance